[Pre-print] Gravitational anti-screening as an alternative to dark matter
Penner, A. Raymond
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The theory of gravitational anti-screening is an alternative to the current theory of dark matter. It is based on a model of the analogous screening of electric charges by virtual electric dipoles that is found in QED. Applying the same model to gravitation leads to anti-screening and results in the apparent mass of a galaxy having the same functional dependence on the galaxy’s baryonic mass and the observation distance that is found with the Baryonic Tully-Fisher Relationship. The screening of electric charge as found in QED and the larger apparent masses of galaxies and galactic clusters would therefore appear to be two sides of the same coin. In this chapter the theory of gravitational anti-screening and the cases where it has been applied will be reviewed. This includes first applying the theory to the rotational curve of the Galaxy, to spiral galaxies in general, and to the Coma cluster. The theoretical results are found to be in good agreement with the corresponding astronomical observations. The theory is then applied to binary galaxies where it is shown that there is a relationship between the line-of-sight velocity difference of the pair and the individual rotational velocities of the galaxies. The theory is in excellent agreement with the observations taken by multiple researchers for the case of the binaries being on radial orbits. The theory will then be applied to the structure of the universe itself. Using a model of the distribution of superclusters, the overall density parameter of the universe, as determined by the theory, is Ω = 1.08 ± 0.19 consistent with a geometrically flat universe. In addition, the energy density which falls out from the theory has a negative pressure associated with it. This leads to an acceleration of the universal expansion without the requirement of dark energy. Finally, the theory will be applied to the solar system where it will be shown to be compatible with planetary ephemerides.