Nanaimo harbour, 1868
In 1862, the H.B.C. mining operations were purchased by the Vancouver Coal Mining and Land Company (hereafter referred to by the initials V.C.M. & L.Co.) The company invested �40,000 to purchase the mines, machinery, buildings, and land, and spent another �60,000 to develop the mine works. Coal was mined on a much larger scale with San Francisco being the chief export market. In 1864, the company surveyed the townsite. George Deverill prepared the street plans for the new city, and lots were sold by auction in Victoria. In this photograph taken in 1868, St. Paul's Anglican Church can be seen just the right of the Bastion.