Show simple item record

dc.contributor.authorLarnder, Ashley
dc.contributor.authorSaatchi, Armin
dc.contributor.authorBorden, Scott A.
dc.contributor.authorMoa, Belaid
dc.contributor.authorGill, Chris G.
dc.contributor.authorWallace, Bruce
dc.contributor.authorHore, Dennis
dc.date.accessioned2022-04-28T21:01:33Z
dc.date.available2022-04-28T21:01:33Z
dc.date.issued2022-06-01
dc.identifier.citationLarnder, A., Saatchi, A., Borden, S.A., Moa, B., Gill, C.G., Wallace, B., & Hore, D. (2022). Variability in the unregulated opioid market in the context of extreme rates of overdose. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 235, 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2022.109427en_US
dc.identifier.issn0376-8716
dc.identifier.otherDOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2022.109427
dc.identifier.otherDOI: 10.25316/IR-17514.
dc.identifier.urihttps://viurrspace.ca/handle/10613/25742
dc.identifier.urihttp://dx.doi.org/10.25316/IR-17514
dc.descriptionThis article was originally published as: Larnder, A., Saatchi, A., Borden, S.A., Moa, B., Gill, C.G., Wallace, B., & Hore, D. (2022). Variability in the unregulated opioid market in the context of extreme rates of overdose. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 235, 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2022.109427en
dc.description.abstractBackground: Drug checking uses analytical chemistry technologies to report on the composition of drugs from the unregulated market to reduce substance use-related risks, while additionally allowing for monitoring and reporting of the supply. In the context of an overdose crisis linked to fentanyl, we used drug checking data to examine variability within the illicit opioid supply. Methods: In this time-series analysis, data was collected from a drug checking service in Victoria, Canada from November 2020 to July 2021. Drugs reported as opioids by participants of the service (N = 454) were analyzed to determine sample composition and paper spray mass spectroscopy was used to quantify low-concentration actives. Interquartile and statistical process control (SPC) analysis, namely standard deviation control charts, were used to examine the degree of variability among samples. Results: Fentanyl was found in 96% of samples reported to be opioids, with a median concentration of 9%. Concentrations varied significantly, with a standard deviation of 7% for fentanyl and where nearly 20% of data points fell outside the control limits. Over half of the samples contained an additional and unexpected active, most commonly etizolam (43% of samples). Etizolam also showed a large level of variability, uncorrelated to that of fentanyl. Conclusions: Based on our chemical quantification and SPC analysis, a high degree of variability was found in opioid samples from the unregulated market in both the drugs detected and the concentrations of those drugs. This demonstrated the opioid crisis to be less attributable to a bad batch of drugs but rather the general variability found in the unregulated market.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipThis work was supported by a grant from the Health Canada Substance Use and Addictions Program, with additional support from the Vancouver Foundation. PS–MS operation and consumables were partially funded by the Vancouver Island University Research and Scholarly Activity Fund and supplies graciously donated by Thermo Fisher Scientific.en_US
dc.format.extent6 pg.en
dc.format.mediumtexten
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdfen
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherElsevieren_US
dc.rightsAttribution NonCommercial No Derivatives 4.0 Internationalen
dc.rights.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/en
dc.subject.lcshFentanylen
dc.subject.lcshHarm reductionen
dc.subject.lcshMass spectrometryen
dc.subject.lcshOpioids--Samplingen
dc.subject.lcshBenzodiazepinesen
dc.subject.otherEtizolamen
dc.titleVariability in the unregulated opioid market in the context of extreme rates of overdoseen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.description.fulltexthttps://viurrspace.ca/bitstream/handle/10613/25742/Gill2022.pdf?sequence=3en
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2022.109427
dc.identifier.doi10.25316/IR-17514


Files in this item

Thumbnail

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record

Attribution NonCommercial No Derivatives 4.0 International
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution NonCommercial No Derivatives 4.0 International