Urban Indigenous Two-Spirit womxn’s experiences with ceremony : a journey of witnessing, reflection, and convergence through story
Horsefall, Barbra Germaine
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The imposition of Western patriarchal norms on Indigenous peoples has created strict notions of gender binaries that categorize individuals as either male or female. This imposed binary has impacted how Indigenous womxn and gender fluid people are treated within communities and ceremonies. Indigenous ceremonial protocols have been reshaped by Christian and colonial influences that have impacted traditional roles of womxn and Two-Spirits. Through an Otipemisiwak Two-Spirit, tribal epistemology, and an intersectional feminist framework (IFF) (Morris & Bunjun, 2007), this research uses an Indigenous relational methodology (Kovach 2010; Wilson, S., 2008) of oral (digital) storytelling to explore the experiences of three Two-Spirit womxn with gender protocols in Indigenous ceremonies. Findings demonstrate the complexities of multiple gendered oppressions and “otherness” of Two-Spirit womxn and how imposed norms and roles have created negative experiences, displacement, confusion, rejection, and contribute to ceremonial avoidance or an inability to heal while participating. This research contributes to the growing grassroots movements to create more inclusive, safe, ethical, and open spaces for Two-Spirit people.
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