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dc.contributor.authorMonaghan, Joseph
dc.contributor.authorRichards, Larissa C.
dc.contributor.authorVandergrift, Gregory W.
dc.contributor.authorHounjet, Lindsay J.
dc.contributor.authorStoyanov, Stanislav R.
dc.contributor.authorGill, Chris G.
dc.contributor.authorKrogh, Erik T.
dc.date.accessioned2021-06-04T19:52:25Z
dc.date.available2021-06-04T19:52:25Z
dc.date.issued2021-04-15
dc.identifier.citationMonaghan, J., Richards, L.C., Vandergrift, G.W., Hounjet, L.J., Stoyanov, S.R., Gill, C.G., & Krogh, E.T. (2021). Direct mass spectrometric analysis of naphthenic acids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in waters impacted by diluted bitumen and conventional crude oil. Science of the Total Environment, 765, 1-10. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144206en_US
dc.identifier.issn0048-9697
dc.identifier.otherDOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144206en
dc.identifier.otherDOI: 10.25316/IR-16263
dc.identifier.urihttps://viurrspace.ca/handle/10613/24437
dc.identifier.urihttp://dx.doi.org/10.25316/IR-16263
dc.descriptionThis document is a pre-copyedited, author-provided manuscript version of a published work that after revisions following peer review and technical editing by the publisher appeared in final form as: Monaghan, J., Richards, L.C., Vandergrift, G.W., Hounjet, L.J., Stoyanov, S.R., Gill, C.G., & Krogh, E.T. (2021). Direct mass spectrometric analysis of naphthenic acids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in waters impacted by diluted bitumen and conventional crude oil. Science of the Total Environment, 765, 1-10. To access the final edited and published work see: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144206en
dc.description.abstractThe accidental release of hydrocarbons has well-documented, deleterious impacts on the hydrosphere. There are several classes of toxic petroleum derived compounds, such as naphthenic acids (NAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which may present a contamination hazard in the event of an oil spill. We examine the aqueous-phase concentrations of these trace contaminants using a direct sampling, on-line, rapid screening technique known as condensed-phase membrane introduction mass spectrometry (CP-MIMS). Water samples having a range of pH and salinity were equilibrated with either diluted bitumen (DB) or conventional crude (CC) oil. CP-MIMS is employed to directly measure concentrations and isomer class profiles of classical NAs in the aqueous phase using electrospray ionization in negative-ion mode as [M-H]–. Aqueous PAH concentrations are monitored using CP-MIMS coupled to liquid electron ionization (LEI) source in positive-ion mode using selected ion monitoring (SIM) of the molecular ion (M+•). Aqueous NA concentrations are observed to be highly pH-dependent, and are an order of magnitude greater in water samples contaminated with DB compared to CC. Conversely, aqueous concentrations of naphthalene and alkyl-naphthalenes are found to be greater in water samples exposed to CC. Principal component analysis of data generated from CP-MIMS for the NA profile in the aqueous phase enables discrimination of DB and CC as contaminant sources. In addition, we describe the use of online membrane sampling for real-time, direct detection of NAs and PAHs in the same sample. These compound classes are distinguished by both their perm-selectivity behaviour at the membrane and the ionization mode at the instrument. The in-situ analysis of trace organics in water with a simple workflow described here lays the foundation for applications of direct mass spectrometry to rapid screening of large sample sets and monitoring of aqueous-phase contamination and remediation processes in real-time.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipThis work was supported by the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada Discovery Grant Program funding RGPIN-2016-06454 (ETK) and RGPIN-2016-05380 (CGG).en_US
dc.format.extent31 pg.en
dc.format.mediumtexten
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdfen
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherElsevieren_US
dc.subject.lcshNaphthenic acidsen
dc.subject.lcshEnvironmental monitoringen
dc.subject.lcshMass spectrometryen
dc.subject.lcshPolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbonsen
dc.subject.lcshWater--Pollution--Toxicologyen
dc.subject.lcshOil spillsen
dc.titleDirect mass spectrometric analysis of naphthenic acids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in waters impacted by diluted bitumen and conventional crude oilen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.description.versionPre-printen
dc.description.fulltexthttps://viurrspace.ca/bitstream/handle/10613/24437/GillKroghSTOTEN2021.pdf?sequence=3en
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144206
dc.identifier.doi10.25316/IR-16263


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