Biosphere landscapes: principles and local practices challenging sustainable development in Africa
Gebretsadik, Tekalign Tafese
Shekur, Aden Abdurahman
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A biosphere reserve is a unique kind of protected area that differs from national parks and other kinds of protected natural areas having three very different, but equal, aims: conservation, scientific research and monitoring; and sustainable development. MAB was launched in 1971 and the BR network in 1976. Currently, WNBR had grown to include 686 BR in 122 countries, including 20 trans-boundary sites. AfriMAB regional network, contains 79 BR recognized as part of the WNBR, across 28 countries. Pre-Seville (1976 to 1995) and post-Seville (1996 to 2018) phases of BR, there exists both success and less success stories globally and in African. The first phase lays its philosophy on strict environmental protection, i.e. strict BR to serve science while the second delimited along sustainable resource use principle, therefore, can be defined as Biosphere landscape management. The notion of converting the concept’s implications into reality at international, national and local scales raises a number of challenges arise from three main functional factors leads to failure and or success of biosphere landscape i.e., BR designation, participation, and delivery. The aim of this article is to review the existing empirical literature about the consistency of principles of BR with local practice and challenging factors associated with successful management of BLs in Africa. The review collects relevant and recent articles published globally and African context and used reports of UNESCO MAB program and AfriMAB to see the current status of the program globally and African context.