Distribution and ecological risks of toxic metals in the topsoils in the Kumasi metropolis, Ghana
Nkansah, Marian Asantewah
Wemegah, David Dotse
Borquaye, Lawrence Sheringham
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The distribution, and ecological risks due to toxic metals in topsoils of an urban commercial centre of Kumasi metropolis were determined. Concentrations of heavy metals in the samples were initially screened using field portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer prior to confirmation on an inductively coupled plasmamass spectrometer. The results from the two instruments correlated well with high linearity (R2 > 0.70). Concentrations of metals were in the order: Fe (45246.15 mg/ kg) > Mn (347.86 mg/kg) > Zn (176.40 mg/kg) > V (173.10 mg/kg) > Cr (125.12 mg/ kg) > Pb (53.47 mg/kg) > Ni (43.16 mg/kg) > Cu (39.85 mg/kg) > As (4.59 mg/ kg) > Sn (3.69 mg/kg) > Cd (0.46 mg/kg) > Hg (0.28 mg/kg). Multivariate and geostatistical analyses exploring various hazard indices such as geo-accumulation, contamination, pollution load and ecological risks all suggest contamination of the topsoils with toxic metals and that the contamination due to Pb, Cu, Ni, Cr and Zn is mainly derived from anthropogenic origins whereas, As, Hg, Mn, V, Sn and Cd contaminations are attributable mainly to geological and atmospheric depositions.
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