Assessment of pollution levels, potential ecological risk and human health risk of heavy metals/metalloids in dust around fuel filling stations from the Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana
Nkansah, Marian Asantewah
Essuman, Thomas Bentum
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of selected heavy metals/ metalloids in filling station dust from the Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana. A total of forty (40) dust samples were analysed for Fe, Ti, Zn, Zr, Mn, Sr, Ba, Cr, Pd, Ni, Cu, As and Mo using X-ray Fluorescence technique. Mean concentrations of Ba, As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sr, Ti, Zn and Zr were 92.26, 6.20, 70.41, 50.18, 466.22, 163.68, 4.63, 44.05, 46.93, 106.69, 327.51, 280.32 and 182.05 mg/kg, respectively. The pollution index (PI) and geo-accumulation (Igeo) index values were in the order of Ba < Mn < Sr < Zr < Cu < Cr < Ni < Mo < As < Zn < Pb < Fe < Ti. The pollution load index had a mean of 2.20, signifying moderate pollution. Higher PI and Igeo value for Pb, Fe and Ti indicated high pollution. The PCA analysis identified anthropogenic inputs and natural origin as the main sources of pollution in filling station dust. The potential ecological risk index decreased as follows: As > Pb > Ni > Cu > Cr > Zn > Mn > Ba. The contribution of hazard quotient via ingestion for most of the heavy metals/metalloids were high with 11.83% for adults and 88.17% for children. For health risk assessment, non-carcinogenic values were below the threshold values, except hazard index via ingestion. The main exposure pathway for both children and adults was ingestion, followed by dermal contact and inhalation.
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