Ktunaxa Knowledge and Governance: Reframing Cumulative Effects Assessment and Management
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Since the arrival of Canadian colonial administration, the Ktunaxa Nation has experienced many different types of land and resource development by outsiders within their homelands and the cumulative impacts of these development projects are a concern for citizens and leadership. The Ktunaxa worldview establishes stewardship obligations that include protection and preservation of the lands and resources within their homelands for future generations. Current CEAM methodology within Canada and British Columbia has many challenges, and in particular does a poor job at integrating Indigenous Knowledge in a meaningful way. Engagement with Ktunaxa through survey and gatherings identified that the Ktunaxa Nation Council (KNC) should take the lead on environmental stewardship, including cumulative effects management, to fulfill their responsibilities. The results of this research propose a Ktunaxa CEAM Framework that is grounded in Ktunaxa worldview, which can be applied collaboratively with other governments and practitioners. The Ktunaxa CEAM Framework is based on defining goals for environmental health, giving equal consideration to assessment, management and monitoring, and allows for increased collaboration with Ktunaxa citizens, external governments and stakeholders. The CEAM Framework is theoretical in nature, and it is recommended that it be applied in future CEAM processes in ʔamakʔis Ktunaxa in order to assess its efficacy.