The impact of video self-modeling on reading performance among struggling readers: a meta-analysis
Students with specific learning disorder in reading may require intervention to improve reading performance and prevent a number of undesirable outcomes such as lower income, higher rates of high school dropout, and reduced working hours. Video self-modeling (VSM) is one such reading intervention. It involves videotaping a child reading and then editing out his or her errors, before having the child view him/herself reading “effortlessly.” VSM is based on Vygotsky’s theory of the zone of proximal development and Bandura’s work on self-efficacy and peer modeling. Early work on the effectiveness of VSM as a reading intervention has shown promise; however, a meta-analysis is needed to synthesize the current literature and to determine which variables contribute to an effective implementation of VSM. This meta-analysis performed an extensive literature review and found 29 data points from eleven papers that met the selection criteria. These data points were analyzed to determine the effectiveness of VSM as an intervention for improving the reading performance of struggling readers. Moderators used in this study were: grade of participant, number of sessions, and whether VSM was applied alone or in conjunction with other interventions. Analysis showed that VSM was an effective reading intervention that resulted in improved reading performance by 0.99 standard deviations. VSM was found to be most effective when implemented with students at earlier grades, and when the number of sessions was greatest. In addition, VSM was most effective when applied in conjunction with other interventions. Overall, this meta-analysis shows that VSM is a promising reading intervention for students with, or at risk for, specific learning disorder in reading, and should be considered by teachers looking for an effective reading intervention.