Review of inorganic arsenic toxicity on avian wildlife
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This study focused on the assessment of ecological risk, specifically the assessment of risk to avian wildlife receptors at contaminated sites. A systematic review of published toxicological dose-response data for inorganic arsenic, as it relates to avian receptors, was completed. Using data extracted from published toxicological studies, a meta-analysis was performed which synthesized the data into a detailed toxicity profile relating exposure, as internalized dose, with effect size to provide a more holistic understanding of the dose-response relationship. A larger objective of this study was to advance the practice of developing decision criteria for defining toxicological effects thresholds beyond which adverse effects might occur. Ecological risk assessments (ERAs) for vertebrate species focus specifically on the potential for adverse effects to whole organisms and population-level consequences. Published reference values are prescribed by regulatory agencies for the assessment of risk under the ERA process. The avian/inorganic arsenic toxicity profile completed in this study provided a means to critically review select published reference values and highlight uncertainties that are inherent in the derivation of reference values.